Books for Sale

18th-Century Philosophy

Attack on Defoe

[ASTELL, Mary]. A Fair Way with the Dissenters and their Patrons. Not Writ by Mr. L-----y, or any other Furious Jacobite, whether Clergyman or Layman; but by a very Moderate Person and Dutiful Subject to the Queen. London: printed by E.P. for R. Wilkin. 1704. Small quarto: [ii], 24 pp., title-page rather soiled and some browning to margins throughout. Later marbled wrappers. First edition.

[73537] £450

In a fiercely partisan age, Astell (1666-1731) was not only a convinced Tory but a determined controversialist. Many of her later prose writings were produced in direct response to publications by her political opponents. In A Fair Way With The Dissenters (1704), written in response to Daniel Defoe's satire The Shortest Way with the Dissenters (1702), she calls for the destruction of Protestant Dissent as a political force.


BONNET, Charles. Contemplation de la Nature. Amsterdam: Marc-Michel Rey. 1766. Two volumes, small 8vo: [iv], xcv[i], 366; [iv], vii[i], 325[1] pp; occasional minor browning. Contemporary mottled calf, gilt decorated spines with raised bands and contrasting labels, some wear to extremities.

[70483] £280

Charles Bonnet (1720-1793), Swiss naturalist and philosopher. This work was first published in 1764, and translated into Italian, German, English and Dutch; it sets forth the theory that all the beings in nature form a gradual scale rising from the lowest to highest without any break in its continuity. Bonnet has been called "one of the fathers of modern biology".


BROWN, John. Essays on the Characteristics. London: printed for C. Davis. 1751. [iv] including title-page printed in red and black with engraved vignette by N. Blakey after C. Grignion, viii, 406 pp., with two errata listed on final leaf of text. Contemporary calf, raised bands, lacking lettering-piece, partly split on joints but firm. First edition.

[72914] £240

Three Essays on Shaftesbury's 'Characteristicks' (1711) - I. On Ridicule considered as a Test of Truth, II. On the Obligations of Man to Virtue, and the Necessity of religious Principle, III. On revealed Religion, and Christianity. Dedicated to Ralph Allen of Bath.


BUTLER, Joseph. The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature. To which are added Two brief Dissertations: I.Of Personal Identity. II.Of the Nature of Virtue. London: printed for James, John and Paul Knapton. 1736. Quarto: [x], x, 11-320 pp., without half-title; title-page and final leaf somewhat soiled, scattered browning mainly affecting margins. Contemporary calf, neatly rebacked to match, raised bands and contrasting label. First edition.

[56702] £425

Printing and the Mind of Man, 193.


CAMPBELL, John. A Political Survey of Britain: being a Series of Reflections on the Situation, Lands, Inhabitants, Revenues, Colonies, and Commerce of this Island. Intended to shew that we have not as yet approached near the Summit of Improvement, but that it will afford Employment to many Generations before they push to their utmost Extent the natural Advantages of Great Britain. In two volumes. London: printed for the author. 1774. Quarto, two volumes: [iv], vi, 726, [24]; [iv], 739, [33] pp; occasional foxing. Contemporary mottled calf, gilt decorated spines with raised bands and contrasting labels, rubbed, joints cracked. First edition.

[54985] £325

"A very useful work, displaying wonderful research and labour, though held in little estimation." Lowndes, "The Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature". Goldsmiths' 11082. Higgs 5884. Kress 6997.


CHANDLER, Samuel. A Vindication of the Christian Religion. In two parts. I.A Discourse of the Nature and Use of Miracles. II. An Answer to a late Book entitled, A Discourse of the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion. Second edition. London: printed for S. Chandler. 1728. xxviii, 404 pp; occasional browning to the margins. Contemporary panelled calf, neatly rebacked, raised bands, with contrasting morocco label.

[56704] £200

First published in 1725. The second part is an attack on Anthony Collins' anonymous work, published in 1724, which provoked a major debate. With a separate title-page to each part, that for the "Answer" dated 1727.


CHAPMAN, John. Eusebius: Or the True Christian's Defense against a Late Book entitul'd the Moral Philosopher. Cambridge: printed for W. Thurlbourn and sold by Mess. Knaptons, Innys and Manby, Betsworth and Hitch, Ch. Rivington and S. Birt Booksellers in London. 1739. [xxx] including addenda/errata leaf, 550 pp., advertisement leaf. Contemporary panelled calf, some wear to extremities, heavily rubbed on spine, joints tender. First edition.

[72901] £200

A second volume was published in 1741. Chapman's attack on Thomas Morgan's "The Moral Philosopher" (1737). "Chapman's real argument is that any attempt to define morality in terms of relation is flawed since morality in his terms is specifically obedience to the will of God. .... Having demonstrated the necessity of revelation, 'Eusebius' becomes a long and learned defence of its accuracy, depending much, as its full title implies, on the early Fathers and other historical records of the Church.

Morgan replied in the second volume of "The Moral Philosopher".

ESTCT 65451.


CORSINI, Eduardo. Institutiones Mathematicae ad usum Scholarum Piarum quibus illustriora Euclidis, Archimedis, Apollonii .... Florence: Bernardi Paperini. 1731. [bound with] Institutiones Philosophicae ac Mathematicae ad usum Scholarum Piarum, Tomus Primus [- Quintus] .... Florence: Bernardi Paperini. 1731-1734. Six volumes bound in five: engraved frontispiece, xvi, 304; lii, 336, 11 folding engraved plates; Tomus Secundus continens Physicam Generalem, viii, 581[1], 3 folding engraved plates; Tomus Tertius continens libros De Coelo, & Mundo, viii, 464, 3 folding engraved plates; Tomus Quartus continens Tractatum de Anima et Mataphysicam, viii, 608, 2 folding engraved plates; Tomus Quintus continens Ethicam, vel Moralem, viii, 496 pp; title-pages printed in red and black with vignette, woodcut initial letters and headpieces; some damp staining affecting volumes I, II & IV but particularly the first part of volume I. Contemporary vellum, rubbed (vol. I upper cover damp stained), contrasting labels.

[56244] £380

Corsini (1702-1765) was Professor of Metaphysics and Morals at the University of Pisa.


CROFT, George. Eight Sermons preached before the University of Oxford, in the year 1786. At the lecture founded by the late Rev. John Bampton. Oxford: printed at the Clarendon Press. 1786. [xii], 210 pp. plus advertisement leaf. Contemporary speckled calf, gilt decorated spine, rubbed, front joint tender.

[56482] £70

The Sermons include 'The Use and Abuse of Reason', 'objections against Inspiration considered', 'On the Evils of Separation'. Croft (1747-1809) defends the rights of the Church of England against nonconformity. ESTCT98913.


GREGORY, John. A Comparative View of the State and Faculties of Man with those of the Animal World .... in two volumes. The sixth edition. London: printed for J. Dodsley. 1774. Small 8vo. Two volumes: half-title to each volume, xvi, 172, [16]; 208 [4] pp; preface and contents leaves in volume 1 misbound. Contemporary sheep, later good quality reback, raised bands, contrasting morocco labels.

[54157] £180

First published in 1765. Jessop, p.133.


HARRIS, James. Philological Inquiries in Three Parts. London: printed for C. Nourse. 1781. Portrait frontispiece (after Bartolozzi) (lightly offset to title-page), [xxx], 236, [iv], [237]-571 [37] pp., with engraved frontispiece of a gymnasium (after James Stuart) to third part, and one other engraved plate of Hercules (after Bartolozzi) opposite p.542. Contemporary calf, neatly rebacked. A good copy of the first edition.

[55651] £280

Harris's last book, published posthumously.


HARTLEY, David. Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duty, and his Expections. In two parts. Part the First: containing Observations on the Frame of the Human Body and Mind, and on their mutual connexions and influences [Part the Second: containing Observations on the Duty and Expectations of Mankind]. London: J. Johnson. 1791. Two volumes: [ii], xvi, iv, 512; xii, 455[1] pp; some scattered foxing or light browning. Contemporary tree calf, gilt decorated spines, some wear to spines, joints cracked.

[56323] £400

First published in 1749, with a quarto edition also published in 1791. The "Sketch of the Life and Character" by David Hartley, the author's son, with "Notes and Additions" by H.A. Pistorius, were published as an additional volume. The first part of the work presents Hartley's (1705-1757) basic theory and its applications to the mind, its powers and its affections; his basic theory is a synthesis of the psychological doctrine of assocation with Newton's doctrine of vibrations, of the oscillating motion of subtle bodies through a fluid; the first part also includes descriptions of the operations of the senses, the formation of complex ideas and passions, and explanations of involuntary and semi-voluntary processes. The second part deals with morality and religion.


[HUBER, Marie]. The World Unmask'd: or, the Philosopher the greatest Cheat; in Twenty-Four Dialogues between Crito a Philosopher, Philo a Lawyer, and Erastus a Merchant. In which True Virtue is distinguished from what usually bears the Name or Resemblance of it: The many Prejudices and Mistakes in Judgment and Practice, in regard to Conscience and Religion, are examined and rectified: And the Value of Truth is shewn; with the Reasons why it is not more generally known. To which is added, The State of Souls separated from their Bodies .... In Answer to a Treatise, entitled, An Enquiry into Origenism. Together with a Large Introduction, evincing the same Truth from the Principles of Natural Religion. Translated from the French. London: printed for A. Millar. 1736. viii, 446 pp. plus publisher's advertisement leaf. Contempoary speckled calf, gilt decorated spine with raised bands and morocco label, partially split at top of front joint. First edition in English.

[54702] £250

A translation of 'Le Monde fou préferé au monde sage …' and 'Le Sistème des anciens et des modernes, conciliés .…' With 'The Sequel of the Fourteen Letters concerning the State of Souls separated from their Bodies. Being an answer to .... An Enquiry into Origenism. By Mr. Professor R-' [Abraham Ruchat], a translation of Marie Huber's 'Suite du Sistème des anciens et des modernes .…' Marie Huber (1695-1753), a Swiss deist.


HUME, David. A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects. Two vols. - Vol. I, Understanding - Passions [Vol. II, Passions - Morals]. A new edition. London: printed for Thomas and Joseph Allman. 1817. Two volumes: 426, iv, 368 pp. Bookplate to front pastedown in each volume. Contemporary calf, rebacked with contrasting labels, gilt decoration, a little rubbed.

[73538] £750

First published in 1739, the second edition not appearing until 1817.


(HUME) [MACQUEEN, Daniel]. Letters on Mr. Hume's History of Great Britain. Edinburgh: printed by Sands, Donaldson, Murray, and Cochran for A. Kincaid and A. Donaldson. 1756. Half-title present, 328 pp; blind stamp to title-page. Recent quarter calf, morocco label. First edition.

[51544] £450

MacQueen provides one of the earliest responses to Hume's 'History of Great Britain' (later 'The History of England'.) Hume amended two passages after the first edition of the work was published, and MacQueen's criticism may have been responsible for this. Jessop p.49.


[JENYNS, Soame]. A Free Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Evil. In Six Letters to -----. London: printed for R. and J. Dodsley. 1757. Small 8vo: [iv], 193 pp., engraved vignette to title. Contemporary calf, later gilt decorated spine with raised bands, contrasting label. First edition. An attractive copy.

[72915] £250

The first edition with p.102 not numbered and p.157 incorectly numbered; a second issue was published in the same year with the addition of a half-title and with the pagination errors corrected. This work attracted much notice at the time of its publication. Samuel Johnson wrote a brilliant and slashing review of it in the `Literary Magazine'


KANT, Immanuel. Critick of Pure Reason translated from the original of Immanuel Kant, by Francis Haywood. Second edition with notes and explanation of terms. London: William Pickering. 1848. xlvi, 625[1] pp. Recent good-quality green full morocco gilt, top edge gilt; with slipcase. A handsome copy.

[56161] £450

First published in 1838, and reprinted with improvements in 1848, this work was commended by William Hamilton, and long remained the standard English translation, making Kant's work accessible to the English-speaking world. In 1844, Haywood (1796-1858) published an analysis of the "Critick", designed to 'elucidate the points which still remain unintelligible'.


KANT, Immanuel. Critik der reinen Vernunft. Neueste Auflage. Frankfurt & Leipzig [no printer]. 1794. xliv, 884 pp; some damp staining to outer margins. Contemporary marbled boards, worn on spine and at extremities.

[56213] £300

Warda 65.


KANT, Immanuel. Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft. Königsberg: Friedrich Nicolovius. 1793. xx, [ii], 296 pp., errata leaf; occasional minor foxing. Contemporary half calf, label, rubbed at extremities. First edition.

[55620] £500

Warda 141.


KANT, Immanuel. Sämmtliche Werke. In chronologischer Reihenfolge herausgegeben von G. Hartenstein. Leipzig: Leopold Voss. 1867-1868. Eight volumes. Contemporary half morocco, rubbed on spines.

[51811] £500

First edition of Hartenstein's chronologically arranged edition. Adickes 3.


(KANT) CAIRD, Edward. A Critical Account of the Philosophy of Kant. With an historical introduction. Glasgow: James Maclehose. 1877. xx, 673 pp., pencilled notes to rear blank; library stamp and bookplates to front endpapers. Contemporary full vellum gilt, red morocco label to spine, central gilt armorial to each cover, slightly soiled on spine. First edition.

[55879] £100

Caird's first book, in which he sought "to explain the Critical Philosophy in its relation to the general development of Philosophy, and especially to the stages of that development which immediately preceded it." (Preface).


MARTIN, Benjamin. Biographia Philosophica. Being an Account of the Lives, Writings, and Inventions, of the most eminent Philosophers and Mathematicians who have flourished from the earliest Ages of the World to the present Time. London: printed and sold by W. Owen, .... and by the Author. 1764. [iv], 565[3] pp; occasional spotting. Later half calf retaining old marbled boards, joints rubbed. First edition.

[55107] £360

"A collection of 156 biographies of great philosophers and mathematicians. More than half of the book is devoted to men of the seventeenth century - Leibnitz, Hooke, Boyle, Flamsteed, Huygens, etc. It is interesting to see them through the eyes of a contemporary philosopher. Newton's life runs from page 361 to 376. A footnote speaks of an engraved portrait of Newton as a frontispiece of the book, but it is not found in this copy." Babson 291. Martin (1704-1782), was self-taught in mathematics and astronomy, and an enthusiastic follower of Newton. He attempted several compendia of natural sciences and philosophy; his "English Dictionary" was published in 1749 with a second edition in 1757.


MIDDLETON, Conyers. A Treatise on the Roman Senate. In two parts. The First Part contains the substance of several letters, formerly written to the late Lord Hervey, concerning the manner of creating Senators ... The Second Part ... I. Of the power and jurisdiction of the Senate. II. Of the right and manner of convoking it .... London: printed by R. Manby and H.S. Cox. 1747. [iv], 196 pp., bound with Remarks on Two Pamphlets lately published against Dr. Middleton's Introductory Discourse. The One, intituled, Observations on that Discourse in answer to the Author's Prejudices, &c. The Other, The Jesuit-Cabal farther opened, or a Defence of Dr. Chapman's late Charge .... London: printed for R. Manby and H.S. Cox. 1748. [iv], xl, 128 pp., bound with [STEBBING, Henry]. Observations on a Book, [by Conyers Middleton] intituled, An Introductory Discourse to a larger Work, &c. containing an Answer to the Author's Prejudices, that Miraculous Powers were not continued to the Church after the Days of the Apostles. London: printed for C. Davis. 1747. 33[1] pp. The three works bound together in recent quarter calf with marbled boards, contrasting labels to spine.

[56414] £125


MILLAR, John. Historical View of the English Government, from the Settlement of the Saxons in Britain to the Revolution in 1688. To which are subjoined, some Dissertations connected with the history of the Government. In four volumes. London: printed for J. Mawman. 1812. Four volumes: viii, 376; vii[i], 487; vii[i], 496; iv, 375 [48] pp; top corner of each title-page cut away without loss of text; scattered foxing and some light damp staining. Contemporary half calf with marbled boards, rubbed.

[55939] £450

First published in 1787, the third enlarged edition with a further volume of dissertations appearing in 1803, edited by John Craig and James Mylne. This was the first work to describe the constitutional history of Britain. "Millar's approach encompasses theories of human nature, morality and justice derived from Adam Smith. Here Millar approached the history of the British Constitution from the wide perspective of the history of civil society. He did so as a philosophical historian, whose position is reflected, for example, in his treatment of the Ancient Constitution. .... it can be said that his approach to the history of society was basically scientific rather than political ..." Prof. Hideo Tanaka in "Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century British Philosophers".



[MONCRIF, Francois Auguste Paradis de]. Essais sur la Neccessité et sur les Moyens de Plaire. Paris: Prault. 1738. Small 8vo: half-title, engraved frontispiece (entitled 'L'Amitié meme a besoin d'Elles'), title-page printed in red and black, [viii], 290 [12] pp., head- and tail-pieces. Contemporary speckled calf, gilt decorated spine, rubbed, partially cracked on joints. First edition. With the early ownership inscription of Mary Douglas to the title-page.

[56336] £200

Moncrif (1687-1770) was a friend of Voltaire.


14 issues of 18th century review journal

[PARKER, Samuel]. Censura Temporum. The Good or Ill Tendencies of Books, Sermons, Pamphlets, &c. Impartially Consider'd, in a Dialogue between Eubulus and Sophronius. Volume II [Volume III]. London: printed for H. Clements. 1709 [1710]. Small quarto: pages 387-544, 579-731, [iv], Table - 12 pp; 96 pp; pages 67 onwards closely trimmed on top edge with occasional loss. Contemporary panelled calf, rubbed, joints tender, with gilt number "2" to spine.

[73468] £350

A monthly journal which ran from 1708 to 1710, includes censure of the religious ideas of Locke, Norris, Spinoza, Whiston. This volumes comprises the issues from January-May, July-December 1709 (lacking issue for June), and also the three issues for 1710.


PRICE, Richard. A Review of the Principal Questions in Morals. Particularly those respecting the Origin of our Ideas of Virtue, its Nature, Reltion to the Deity, Obligation, Subject-matter, and Sanctions. The third edition, corrected, and enlarged by an Appendix, containing additional notes, and a Dissertation on the Being and Attributes of the Deity. London: printed for T. Cadell. 1787. vii[i], 512 pp; some minor spotting mainly affecting first and last few leaves. Later (19th century) full calf by Seton Mound of Edinburgh, blind tooled spine, contrasting morocco label, rubbed at extremities, joints tender.

[71525] £300

Price's first work, first published in 1758, with numerous revisions and changes to subsequent editions. Price's system of moral philosophy foreshadowed the fundamental ideas and expressions of Kant.


PRIESTLEY, Joseph. The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity Illustrated; being an Appendix to the Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit. To which is added An Answer to the Letters on Materialism, and on Hartley's Theory of the Mind. London: printed for J. Johnson. 1777. xxxiv (including half-title), errata leaf, 206 pp. plus advertisement leaf for "A Catalogue of Books written by Joseph Priestley". Contemporary tree calf, gilt decorated spine, green morocco label, split on joints. First edition.

[56132] £400

Priestley largely endorses Hume's view of necessity and in the preface to the work (p.xxi) recommends to readers "some things very well written on it by Mr. Hume, and Lord Kaims." Priestley's defence of necessity was so successful that it overshadowed Hume's view in the free will and determinism debate in the late eighteenth century. ESTCT34801.


RAY, John. Philosophical Letters between the late Learned Mr. Ray and several of his Ingenious Correspondents, Natives and Foreigners. To which are added those of Francis Willughby Esq; the whole consisting of many curious Discoveries and Improvements in the History of Quadrupeds, Birds, Fishes, Insects, Plants, Fossiles, Fountains, &c. Published by W. Derham. London: printed by William and John Innys. 1718. [viii], 376 pp., [10] pp. index plus advertisement leaf; woodcut head and tailpieces, occasional diagrams. Contemporary panelled calf, neatly repaired at top and bottom of spine, later label. First edition.

[72892] £400

With the armorial bookplate of W. Wynne. Keynes 109.


REUSCH, Johann Peter. Systema Metaphysicum Antiquiorum atque Recentiorum item propria dogmata et hypotheses exhibens. Editio teria auctior et emendatior. Jena: Croeker. 1753. [xvi], 4, [iv], 64, 1120, [80] pp; title-page printed in red and black with engraved vignette, occasional head- and tail-pieces; marbled edges. Contemporary half calf, gilt decorated spine with raised bands, contrasting label.

[56009] £450

Reusch (1691-1757), was professor of philosophy at Jena, and a Wolffian philosopher. "Systema Metaphysicum" was first published in 1734.


[SHAFTESBURY, Anthony Ashley Cooper Third Earl of]. Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times. In three volumes. [No place of publication or publisher in vols. I & II/vol. III - London: printed by John Darby]: 1711/1714/1723. Three volumes: [ii], iv, [ii], 364; 443[1]; [iv], 391 [55] pp; general title to volume I plus engraved title-page to each volume, engraved headpieces and vignettes; occasional light browning; outer margins of pages 107-142 in volume I nibbled but not affecting text. Contemporary half vellum with marbled boards, a little soiled. First edition of volume I, second edition of volume II, third edition of volume III.

[70493] £480


Handsome set of the Baskerville edition

SHAFTESBURY, Right Honourable Anthony, Earl of. Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times. In three volumes. The fifth edition. Birmingham: printed by John Baskerville. 1773. Three volumes: [vi], iv, 364; 443; [iv], 410, errata leaf, [48] pp., with engraved full-length portrait in volume I, engraved vignettes, head and tail-pieces; top edges gilt. Later full calf gilt by Bayntuns, Bath, with raised bands, contrasting labels. An attractive set. From the library of Rachael M. Kydd.

[55272] £600

Gaskell 49.


VOLTAIRE, François Marie Arouet de. L'Esprit de Monsieur de Voltaire. [No place of publication or publisher]. 1759. Engraved vignette to title-page (by Doflos), ii, [3]-284 pp. Contemporary mottled calf, some wear to covers, ornate gilt decorated spine, some wear to head and base.

[55851] £250

A selection of Voltaire's writings, compiled by Claude Villaret. Bengesco 2201.


(VOLTAIRE) BAILLY, Jean Sylvain. Lettres sur l'Origine des Sciences, et sur celle des Peuples de l'Asie; Addressées à M. de Voltaire par M. Bailly, & précédées de quelques Lettres de M. de Voltaire é l'Auteur. Londres, chez M. Elmesly, et a Paris, chez De Bure l'ainé. 1777. [iv], 348 pp. Contemporary mottled calf, contrasting label, split on front joint, rubbed. First edition.

[70001] £340

Jean-Sylvain Bailly (1736-1793) was born in the Louvre, the son of the keeper of the Royal paintings. He is known for his 'Histoire de l'astronomie ancienne' and a number of other works on astronomy, which brought him into conflict with Voltaire, resulting in this series of letters.

Bengesco 2008. ESTCN19445.


(VOLTAIRE) [RICHARD, Charles Louis]. Voltaire parmi les Ombres. Geneva, et se trouve a Paris, chez P.G. Simon, … la veuve Desaint, … Moutard, … Merigot jeune …. 1776. xii, [13]-380 pp (errata on p.374); outer margin of Aii & Aiii torn without loss of text; neat early manuscript notes to front endpapers and lower portion of p.373. Contemporary quaarter calf, rubbed.

[70003] £200

Charles-Louis Richard (1711-1794), Dominican, was the author of a number of anti-Voltaire works.


WATTS, Isaac. The Improvement of the Mind: or, a Supplement to the Art of Logick: containing a variety of Remarks and Rules for the attainment and communication of useful knowledge, in Religion, in the Sciences, and in common Life. London: printed for James Brackstone. 1741. xv[i], 362 pp; some damp staining to upper corner of approx. first 40 leaves and also to last few leaves. Contemporary calf, neatly rebacked, contrasting label. First edition.

[56067] £350



WATTS, Isaac. The Improvement of the Mind; or a Supplement to the Art of Logic ….. With an introduction and a life of the author. London: printed for G. Routledge. 1845. 12mo: engraved portrait frontispiece, xxxii, 363 pp. Contemporary straight-grained red morocco, gilt decorated spine, scuffed at extremities but a pretty copy.

[72455] £30

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